Able to recognize parts of the cell, simple cell cycle, and how these all relate to how cells function in our bodies both for good and for not so good (such as cancer as a case study) 2. Able to explain how our actions affect the cells and cell systems in our body, and how they respond to changes (such as exercise and the body) 3. Ability to see systems in plants and animals 4. Understand how cancer can be treated and explore possible options for this By the end of this guide I will have mastered the following new scientific/research skills: 1.
Able to effectively use a microscope to obtain a better understanding of cell structures, and use it to collect data to interpret cell cycles and cells in general 2. Able to write a sound lab report using the necessary parts of a scientific paper 3. Able to use various resources to explain cell cycles, and organ systems The tasks I will have to complete in this guide are: Tasks to Complete What will be done in this part? How is this being used? 1. 0Intro: Henrietta’s cells -Questions to answer and discussion in class introduction 1.
1Understanding Cells and Life SMWYK -Figure out a way to learn the different types of cells, parts of the cell and why it is important Learning 1. 2 Using the Microscope EffectivelySkills to practice -ability to use a microscope -able to make a wet mount and observe items at low, medium, and high power Practice 1. 3 Observing Cells Labusing what you have learned as well as skills -Using the skills learned in 1 and 2 in real life situations, explaining differences between animal and plant cells Evaluated 2. 1 Understanding and Observing Cell Cycle (focus: Mitosis) -Able to explain the variousparts of the cell cycle -View under microscope the different stages of mitosis Learning and Evaluation 2. 2 Understanding Stem Cells -Learning about stem cells and importance in the future of medicine Learning 2.
3 Whatis Cancer? -Describing cancer and learning about how to treat cancer. Learning 2. 4 Cells to Organ Systems -how cells form tissues, then organs, and finally organ systemsreading and worksheet (or SMWYK if you would like) Learning 3. 1 Exercise Lab Activity -understanding how changing the environment on a body will affect organ systems Evaluated 3. 2 Plant Tissues Activity -learning about plant tissues and systems through questions and lab exercise Learning 3. 3 Fish Dissection -learning about systems through completion of a dissection to show how detailed a body really is Learning and Practice 3.
4 Cancer Treatment Project -developing a cancer treatment, testing effectiveness, and then presenting your findings Evaluated 4. 0 Biology TEST -demonstrate understanding by completing a test of the content learned Evaluated New Terms In this Guide: Cells and Cell Cycle Cancer and Stem Cells Systems and Exercise Plants and others Activity: 1. 0 Henrietta’s CellsObjective of the Activity: Understanding the role research plays in our understanding of health and cells. As well, understanding of historical perspective, as sometimes what we do is not ethically proper in different generations. Reading to be done for the questions below.
Discussion of the questions and the reading will take place Introduction:Henrietta Lacks’ Immortal’ Cells Medical researchers use laboratory-grown human cells to learn the intricacies of how cells work and test theories about the causes and treatment of diseases. The cell lines they need are “immortal”they can grow indefinitely, be frozen for decades, divided into different batches and shared among scientists. In 1951, a scientist at Johns Hopkins Hospital in Baltimore, Maryland, created the first immortal human cell line with a tissue sample taken from a young black woman with cervical cancer. Those cells, calledHeLacells, quickly became invaluable to medical researchthough their donor remained a mystery for decades. In her new book,The Immortal Life of Henrietta Lacks, journalist RebeccaSkloottracks down the story of the source of the amazingHeLacells, Henrietta Lacks, and documents the cell line’s impact on both modern medicine and the Lacks family. You can watch a documentary aboutHeLacells at:http://topdocumentaryfilms.
com/the-way-of-all-flesh/ Journalist RebeccaSkloot’sbook investigates how a poor black tobacco farmer had a groundbreaking impact on modern medicine. The following is an interview with RebeccaSklootby Sarah Zielinski (Smithsonian. com, January 22, 2010) Who was Henrietta Lacks?She was a black tobacco farmer from southern Virginia who got cervical cancer when she was 30. A doctor at Johns Hopkins took a piece of her tumor without telling her and sent it down the hall to scientists there who had been trying to grow tissues in culture for decades without success. No one knows why, but her cells never died.
Why are her cells so important?Henrietta’s cells were the first immortal human cells ever grown in culture. They were essential to developing the polio vaccine. They went up in the first space missions to see what would happen to cells in zero gravity. Many scientific landmarks since then have used her cells, including cloning, gene mapping and in vitro fertilization. There has been a lot of confusion over the years about the source ofHeLacells.
Why?When the cells were taken, they were given the code nameHeLa, for the first two letters in Henrietta and Lacks. Today,anonymizingsamples is a very important part of doing research on cells. But that wasn’t something doctors worried about much in the 1950s, so they weren’t terribly careful about her identity. When some members of the press got close to finding Henrietta’s family, the researcher who’d grown the cells made up a pseudonymHelen Laneto throw the media off track. Other pseudonyms, like Helen Larsen, eventually showed up, too. Her real name didn’t really leak out into the world until the 1970s.
How did you first get interested in this story?I first learned about Henrietta in 1988. I was 16 and a student in a community college biology class. Everybody learns about these cells in basic biology, but what was unique about my situation was that my teacher actually knew Henrietta’s real name and that she was black. But that’s all he knew. The moment I heard about her, I became obsessed: Did she have any kids? What do they think about part of their mother being alive all these years after she died? Years later, when I started being interested in writing, one of the first stories I imagined myself writing was hers.
But it wasn’t until I went to grad school that I thought about trying to track down her family. How did you win the trust of Henrietta’s family?Part of it was that I just wouldn’t go away and was determined to tell the story. It took almost a year even to convince Henrietta’s daughter, Deborah, to talk to me. I knew she was desperate to learn about her mother.
So when I started doing my own research, I’d tell her everything I found. I went down to Clover,Virginia, where Henrietta was raised, and tracked down her cousins, then called Deborah and left these stories about Henrietta on her voice mail. Because part of what I was trying to convey to her was I wasn’t hidinganything, thatwe could learn about her mother together. After a year, finally she said, fine, let’s do this thing. When did her family find out about Henrietta’s cells?Twenty-five years after Henrietta died, a scientist discovered that many cell cultures thought to be from other tissue types, including breast and prostate cells, were in factHeLacells.
It turned out thatHeLacells could float on dust particles in the air and travel on unwashed hands and contaminate other cultures. It became an enormous controversy. In the midst of that, one group of scientists tracked down Henrietta’s relatives to take some samples with hopes that they could use the family’s DNA to make a map of Henrietta’s genes so they could tell which cell cultures wereHeLaand which weren’t, to begin straightening out the contamination problem. So a postdoc called Henrietta’s husband one day.
But he had a third-grade education and didn’t even know what a cell was. The way he understood the phone call was: “We’ve got your wife. She’s alive in a laboratory. We’ve been doing research on her for the last 25 years. And now we have to test your kids to see if they have cancer.
” Which wasn’t what the researcher said at all. The scientists didn’t know that the family didn’t understand. From that point on, though, the family got sucked into this world of research they didn’t understand, and the cells, in a sense, took over their lives. How did they do that?This was most true for Henrietta’s daughter. Deborah never knew her mother; she was an infant when Henrietta died.
She had always wanted to know who her mother was but no one ever talked about Henrietta. So when Deborah found out that this part of her mother was still alive she became desperate to understand what that meant: Did it hurt her mother when scientists injected her cells with viruses and toxins? Had scientists cloned her mother? And could those cells help scientists tell her about her mother, like what her favorite color was and if she liked to dance. Deborah’s brothers, though, didn’t think much about the cells until they found out there was money involved. HeLacells were the first human biological materials ever bought and sold, which helped launch a multi-billion-dollar industry. When Deborah’s brothers found out that people were selling vials of their mother’s cells, and that the family didn’t get any of the resulting money, they got very angry.
Henrietta’s family has lived in poverty most of their lives, and many of them can’t afford health insurance. One of her sons was homeless and living on the streets of Baltimore. So the family launched a campaign to get some of what they felt they were owed financially. It consumed their lives in that way. What are the lessons from this book?For scientists, one of the lessons is that there are human beings behind every biological sample used in the laboratory. So much of science today revolves around using human biological tissue of some kind.
For scientists, cells are often just like tubes or fruit fliesthey’re just inanimate tools that are always there in the lab. The people behind those samples often have their own thoughts and feelings about what should happen to their tissues, but they’re usually left out of the equation. And for the rest of us?The story ofHeLacells and what happened with Henrietta has often been held up as an example of a racist white scientist doing something malicious to a black woman. But that’s not accurate.
The real story is much more subtle and complicated. What is very true about science is that there are human beings behind it and sometimes even with the best of intentions things go wrong. One of the things I don’t want people to take from the story is the idea that tissue culture is bad. So much of medicine today depends on tissue culture. HIV tests, many basic drugs, all of our vaccineswe would have none of that if it wasn’t for scientists collecting cells from people and growing them. And the need for these cells is going to get greater, not less.
Instead of saying we don’t want that to happen, we just need to look at how it can happen in a way that everyone is OK with. Questions to discuss:What is a cell?How do cells divide?How do cells specialize for a specific task?Is there a limit to how many times a cell can divide?What is cancer and how is it relevant to Henrietta Lacks’ cell lines?Why do scientists need immortal’ cell lines?Final comments:Information Sheet: CellsWhat are cells?All living things are made of cells. Our bodies are made up of between 10 trillion (1013) and 100 trillion (1014) cells. There are many different kinds of cells in your body, each carrying out an important function, and these cells work together to build organs and tissues that work to keep you alive. A cell is the basic unit of life.
Plants and animals are made of eukaryotic cells, which means they contain smaller structures called organelles, including a membrane-bound nucleus. These organelles have special functions that maintain all life processes of the cell including:Intake of nutrientsMovementGrowth Response to stimuliExchange of gasesWaste removalReproductionAlthough all cells must perform the tasks that maintain life, not all cells are identical. Some structures and organelles are the same in both plant and animal cells, while others differ between plant and animal cells. Cells within the same organism can also differ in structure and numbers of organelles, depending on the function of the cell.
Discovering CellsCells were not observed until microscopes were invented in the mid 1600s. Early scientists used simple light microscopes (like the ones in school) to view cells. These microscopes helped scientists view external structures of cells, but revealed few details about the internal organelles. Advances in technology, such as the development of the electron microscope have allowed biologists to learn detailed information about different cell parts and their functions.
The electron microscope can produce images that are 1000x more detailed than the light microscope. The discovery of the cell is an example of how scientific knowledge depends on technology. With the development of improved microscopes, the Cell Theory emerged, with 3 basic principals:All living organisms are made of one or more cellsCells are the basic unit of organization (structure) and function in all organisms. All cells come from pre-existing cells Activity: 1. 1 Understanding Cells and Life SMWYKWhat needs to be done: Create a way to learn the various differences and similarities between the types of cells.
You are not being evaluated, but need to demonstrate you attempted to learn the concepts. You will be evaluated on these concepts on the end of the guide test. Key Learning to be done here:-difference between Eukaryotic and Prokaryotic cells-difference between plant and animal cells-explain various roles the major organelles play in the cell, create an analogy for body systems or other aspects. Materials or Research needed:-many searchs can provide necessary content here-here is one site that contains most of the information needed: http://www.
cellsalive. com/- watch the video about Prokaryotic cells and Eukrayotic cells via the link posted in the Biology module on our D2LNew Terminology To be Acquired here:EukaryoticProkaryoticCell membraneCell wallNucleusNucleolusEndoplasmic reticulumLysosomeMitochondriaRibosomeVacuoleCytoplasmGolgi apparatusCentriolesFinal comments: Be sure to let your teacher know when this is completed and show your teacher how you have learned the material. Ask along the way if you are unclear about content Activity: 1. 2 Using the Microscope EffectivelySkills to practiceWhat needs to be done: once you have finished labelling and understanding how to use a microscope as well as how to create a biological drawing (found below), Use some sample slides and a microscope, work to focus and take pictures of what you see. Demonstrate to your teacher you are able to use a microscope before moving to the next task. Key Learning to be done here:-able to name the parts of a microscope-able to effectively use a microscope-able to make a biological drawing (both by hand and if using a photo, digital rules apply)Materials or Research needed:Optional Lesson: Using a microscope and making wet mounts for microscopesYOU MUST COMPLETE THIS ACTIVITY BEFORE ATTEMPTING ANY ACTIVITY THAT REQUIRES A MICROSCOPE AND DRAWING.
Part A) Labelling Microscope Diagram, Functions, & UseGo to the following web site: http://www. wisc-online. com/Objects/ViewObject. aspx?ID=BIO905Click next and complete only the parts of the simulation required to label the microscope. Review the functions of some of the main microscope parts below; refer to this page if needed during the Microscope lab (Activity 3):Ocular Lens (eyepiece)Where you look into the microscope; magnifies the specimen, usually by 10X Body TubeSeparates the ocular lens from the objective lensNosepieceHolds the objective lenses; you can rotate the nosepiece to change the magnificationObjective lenses (low, medium, high)Magnifies the specimen further (typically low=4X, medium=10X, high=40X)Stage ClipsHold the slide containing the specimen in position on the stageDiaphragmAllows light from the lamp to pass through the specimen (amount of light reaching the specimen can be changed)LampSupplies the light passing through the specimenArmHolds the body tube in place and is used to carry the microscopeStageSupports the slide for observationCoarse Adjustment KnobMoves the stage up or down to focus on the specimen (only used with the low and medium power objectives)Fine Adjustment KnobSharpens and image (used with all objective lenses)BaseProvides a stable platform for the microscopeUsing the light microscope:1.
Place the microscope on a flat surface. 2. Make sure that the LOW power objective lens is in place. You know which is the low power objective because it is the SHORTEST. 3.
Obtain your slide and put it on the STAGE. Secure the slide in place by using the STAGE CLIPS. 4. Looking through the OCULAR lens, observe your specimen.
If it is blurry, focus the specimen using the COARSE adjustment knob. 5. Make sure your specimen is in the CENTRE of your field of view. 6. Once the specimen is in focus, rotate the nosepiece so the MEDIUM power objective lens is in place. 7.
Focus the specimen using the COARSE adjustment knob. Make sure the specimen is in the middle of your field of view. 8. Once the specimen is in focus, rotate the nosepiece so the HIGH power objective lens is in place. 9. Focus the specimen using ONLY the FINE adjustment knob.
NEVER use the COARSE adjustment knob at high power because you could break the objective lens and the slide. Part B) Scientific DrawingsScientific drawings are done following a standard set of rules:Follow these rules for your biological drawings (by hand):1. Use blank, unlined paper and always use a pencil. 2. There should be no colour or shading in your drawing. 3.
All labels must be printed and lined up on the right side of the drawing. 4. Never cross the labelling lines. All labels are written horizontally and lines drawn using a ruler.
5. Your drawing should be large enough to be clear and so the labels are not cluttered (approximately page). 6. Centre and print the title at the top of the page-what is it we are looking at? Provide the magnification of the microscope used when making the drawing below the drawing. 7. Label only what you can see and identify.
A sample drawing:Follow these rules for your biological drawings (if you have a digital picture taken from a microscope):1. All labels must be printed and lined up on the right side of the drawing. 2. Never cross the labelling lines. All labels are written horizontally and lines are straight.
3. Your picture/diagram should be large enough to be clear and so the labels are not cluttered (approximately page). 4. Centre and print the title at the top of the page. Provide the magnification of the microscope used when making the drawing below the drawing. 5.
Label only what you can see and identify. Activity: 1. 3 Observing Cells Labusing what you have learned as well as skillsObjective of the Activity: Observe the Plant and Animal Cells and observe differences between themThe task at hand: Microscopic Observation of Plant and Animal CellsPre-Lab Activity – BEFORE STARTING THE MICROSCOPE LAB – SHOW YOUR TEACHER YOUR COMPLETED MICROSCOPE & SCIENTIFIC DRAWING ACTIVITYMicroscope LabObjective: Examine plant and animal cells under a microscope and draw labelled biological diagrams to show how they differ. Materials: piece of lettuce with a “rib”, scalpel, toothpick, microscope slide, cover slip, eyedropper, water, methylene blue stain/dye, microscopeProcedure A: Plant Cell – Lettuce “skin”Lettuce cells can be used to observe the cellular structures called the nucleus (you may not be able to see a nucleus as the majority of the cells are covered in vacuole with the chloroplasts around the edge next to the membrane, chloroplasts, vacuole, cell membrane and cell wall.
1. Take a piece of lettuce and “break” it along the rib and peel back a layer to expose the almost transparent layer (these are the cells from epidermis layer and below). Carefully place this layer onto a microscope slide and flatten it out. 2.
Add a drop of water to the slide. Uncurl or unfold any overlapped portion of the cell layer. Make sure the layer is perfectly flat. Add a cover slip. 3.
Observe the cells under low, medium and high power of the microscope. Note the brick wall appearance of the cells with cell walls separating the cells. 4. Attempt to locate a the various parts of the cell. 5.
Under high power, take a picture of your slide (to showcase the cells observed)6. Use the picture to create a biological diagram, and label as much as is visible. Procedure Part B: Animal Cell – Cheek EpithelialHuman cheek cells are excellent for examining cell membranes and cytoplasm. 1.
Wash your hands, and carefully take a finger and wipe it along the inside of your cheek to get a bit of mucus and skin cells. 2. Smear the “spit” on a slide. 3. Add ONE drop of methylene blue to the smear, and likely one drop of water too.
4. Add a cover slip and dilute the stain with the “bleed method” of extracting too much stain from the slide. Examine under low, medium and high power of your microscope. 5. Locate and examine cells that are separated from one another rather than those that are in clumps.
Take a picture of your slide under high power showing a few individual cells6. Diagram several cheek cells as they appear under high magnification. Label the cell membrane, and cytoplasm, nucleus and if you can find another organelles. To submit for evaluation: Observations: Include properly labelled good copy of a digital photograph taken of your slides under HIGH power (ensuring labelling rules are followedyou will be evaluated on this). Answer to the following Discussion Questions:The cheek epithelial cells vary in shape while the plant cells show a highly regular brick wall arrangement.
In terms of cellular structures, why do you think there are these differences? Mature plant cells often contain large central vacuoles that are not present in animal cells. Explain the various purposes these vacuoles in plants, and be sure to talk about the “skeletal” role it plays. Plants typically appear green in colour when viewed without a microscope. When looking at the lettuce cells, most of the cell is not green? Why are only parts of the cell green, yet the plant looks green? Why are plants so concentrated as green?Final comments: This is NOT a formal lab.
You submit the biological drawings and the answers to the questions in full complete sentences. Evaluation: 15 marksAbility to use microscope and take photos: 4 marksAbility to effectively and correctly create a labelled biological drawing: 5 marksAnswering the Questions: each question is marked out of 2 Activity: 2. 1Cell cycle and MitosisActivity : Mitosis. Complete A. and B.
Mitosis SMWYK: Figure out a way to describe and show the 4 key stages of mitosis, as well as how it fits into the cell cycle. Learn it and present how you learned it to your teacher. Be sure to include the different things that happen during each of the phases. Labelled diagrams may be useful as well. This is assessed as complete and correct, or not. Observing MitosisUsing your microscope and prepared Onion Root-tip slides.
Create a digital slide show (can use word or other), by taking YOUR OWN digital pictures of the 4 stages of mitosis, and submitting them. The photos are to be your OWN and you are to be able to correctly label the cells in a digital biological drawing. AS you did in the Cell Lab. Evaluation:SMWYKAssessed as correct or not No mark providedObserving Mitosis photoscorrectly labelled showing all the 4 stages. /5Diagrams contain the proper format for labeling biological drawings/5__TotalMaterials or Research needed:Mitosis link:http://www. biology.
arizona. edu/cell_bio/tutorials/cell_cycle/cells3. htmlBackground information: Information Sheet: Cell Cycle & Mitosis Read:ONScience10, p. 33-38, 40-42Read the information on the cell cycle and mitosis below, then move onto the hands on activity. A) The Cell Cycle (background reading)Every hour, about 1 billion cells die and 1 billion cells are made in your body.
Through careful observation, scientists have identified a repeating cycle of events in the life of a cell. This cycle of events is called the cell cycle. During much of the cell cycle, the cell grows and prepares for cell division. In fact, although the main goal of the cell cycle is division, the cell spends most of its time preparing for division.
The cell is in interphase when it is preparing for cell division. Cell division involves packaging the genetic information in the nucleus into 2 equal portions; this process is called mitosis. Then the cytoplasm is split into 2 portions so that the original parent cell divides to form 2 new “daughter cells”. The diagram below represents the stages of the cell cycle, including where division, or mitosis, fits in.
The size devoted to each phase represents the amount of time spent in that phase. Learn about the stages of the cell cycle in the following animation:http://www. cellsalive. com/cell_cycle.
htmMitosis in More Detail: http://www. cellsalive. com/mitosis. htmFinal comments: Lesson on stages of mitosis using socks and cell cycle is available Activity:2. 2Stem Cells UnderstandingObjective of the Activity: Read and understand what stem cells are and why they are important to discuss when looking at medical research and why they may be also ethically important to consider as a means for treatment. Questions to answer: Able to discuss (research and links found below)What issues surround the debate over government funding of stem cell research? What are various sources of stem cells including the advantages and disadvantages associated with each source? (be sure to include embryonic cells here) How might stem cells be used to treat a disease?Use the following link and hit the “launch video” to watch a video about sickle cell anemia.
http://www. pbs. org/wgbh/nova/body/stem-cells-breakthrough. html What do you think is an important issue that needs to be debated as we make decisions about stem cell research?The Stem Cell Controversy: From:Teachers’ Domain, Stem Cell Debate, published September 26, 2003, retrieved onMarch 16, 2011,(link for this information is from here: http://www.
teachersdomain. org/resource/tdc02. sci. life. cell.
stemweb/)The use of embryonic stem cells in medical research is highly controversial and has met with intense public and political ambivalence. A battle has waged over the ethics of using these important cells ever since researchers announced in 1998 that they had removed stem cells from a human embryo and grown the cells in culture. But what exactly are stem cells, and why are they so important? Generally speaking, stem cells are unspecialized cells that have the potential to develop into many different types of specialized cells and tissues. Most stem cells also have the ability to divide indefinitely and thus provide a never-ending supply of new stem cells. However, stem cells vary both in their potential and in the source from which they are obtained.
One type of stem cell that is generally not recognized in the stem cell debate because it is not harvested as a source of these important cells is the fertilized egg cell, or zygote. A cell at this developmental stage is said to be totipotent, which means that it has the potential to create any type of cell necessary for embryonic development, including placental tissue. In the first few hours after fertilization, the zygote undergoes several cell divisions resulting in a number of totipotent cells. If any one of these cells were to become split off from the rest and implanted in the lining of the uterus, it would develop as a separate embryo. This is how identical twins arise.
Approximately four days after fertilization, the rapidly dividing cells create a hollow sphere called a blastocyst, with a small cluster of cells inside called the inner cell mass. While the outer layer develops into the placenta, the inner cell mass will develop into the fetus. Scientists call these stem cells pluripotent, which means that they have the potential to develop into any type of fetal cell, but not the placental cells needed to support a fetus. As development continues, pluripotent stem cells give rise to a wide variety of specialized cells, including multipotent stem cells. Multipotent stem cells are responsible for replenishing specific types of cells throughout a person’s life.
Even adults have multipotent stem cells — in their blood and skin, for example. Many researchers think we may have some other types of multipotent stem cells, including nerve stem cells. Of all the different types of stem cells available, most scientists consider pluripotent stem cells to be the most promising for medical uses. Because the cells themselves are not capable of developing into a fetus, as totipotent cells are, the ethical dilemma of doing research with them is somewhat diminished.
Collecting pluripotent stem cells, however, still requires the killing of several-day-old embryos — albeit embryos that have already been discarded from fertility clinics — and so the debate continues. Because of this, many researchers are searching for ways to trigger multipotent cells to, in a sense, regress — to expand their development potential to a broader range of cell types. Activity: 2. 3 What is CancerObjective of the Activity: Understand what cancer is, how it spreads, and some of the key treatments (chemotherapy, surgery, and radiation)Key Learning to be done here:Materials or Research needed:The task at hand:Final comments:Relating Cell Division to Cancer – VideoGo to the following web site to watch the short documentary on cancer biology. http://www. cancerquest.
org/index. cfm?page=3102&gclid=COmFrIr7n6MCFQ4NDQodcS62lA#orhttp://www. cancerquest. org/images/FLV/fullDocumentary/English/fullDocInterfaceEng.
swfAs you are watching the video, answer the following questions: Organs, skin and muscles are made up of cells. Cancer is a result of what? Specifically, what happens at the cellular level?Normal cells divide only when told to do so. How are cancer cells different?A mass of cancer cells that pile up are referred to as a tumour. The nucleus is an important organelle when it comes to cancer.
The nucleus contains DNA organized into chromosomes and further organized into genes. An alteration in a gene is called a mutation. What environmental factors can cause mutations in genes?Genes that are responsible for making cells divide are called proto-oncogenes. If these proto-oncogenes are changed, what are they referred to? What do they cause?What is the function of tumor suppressor genes and what happens when they are damaged? What is angiogenesis and what does it lead to? (include metastasis in your answer)Contrast apoptosis in normal and cancer cells. Based on what you have learned about cancer, hypothesize why many cancers are so hard to treat.
Activity: 2. 4 Cells to Tissues and Organ SystemsObjective of the Activity:Key Learning to be done here:Materials or Research needed:The task at hand:Final comments:Activity 2. 4: Cells and TissuesRead: ONScience 10, p. 88-89.
In a single celled organism, such as the amoeba, the cell has to be able to do everything that is needed for the organism to survive. For example, the cell has to find food, break it down to release energy, respond to its environment, and eliminate wastes. Organelles in the amoeba, such as digestive vacuoles, perform these jobs. In more complex organisms, such as the whale, humans, and plants, these tasks are handled by groups of specialized cells. These groups of specialized cells that work together to perform specific tasks are called tissues.
Although there are millions of different organisms on earth, each containing millions to trillions of cells, there are surprisingly only four different tissue types. The four primary tissue types are:i)EPITHELIAL tissue, ii) CONNECTIVE tissue, iii) MUSCLE tissue, iv) NERVOUS tissue. Every cell in your body belongs to one of these four tissue types. Table 1: 4 Types of Animal TissuesFigure 1: Animal Tissues in More Detail *Summarize:In your notes,Completethe chartsimilar to this onebelow to summarize the major functions of each type of body tissue.
Use the reference pages in your learning guide and also the Types of Tissue reference(pages 88-89). Tissue Function(s) Epithelial Muscle Nervous ConnectiveActivity: 3. 1: Exercise LabObjective of the Activity:Key Learning to be done here:Materials or Research needed:The task at hand:Final comments:Lab – Heart Rate, Breathing Rate and ExerciseIntroduction: The purpose of this lab is to determine what, if any, relationship between the type of exercsise (aerobic vs. anaerobic) and how long it takes your body to recover at the end of it.
Does it take longer for your body to recover from an anaerobic or aerobic activity (you need to measure the heart rate and breathing rate as a measure of recovery). Pre-Lab Questions to complete:What is the difference between aerobic and anaerobic exercise?How do cells create “energy” for the muscles to work?What “fuels” are needed, and what wastes are created?How does the body respond to exercise? What systems are involved?What is your resting heart rate? Breathing rate?Hypothesis: What do you think? Why do you think this? Provide reasons for your prediction. Materials:StopwatchRulersGraph paperThis lab sheetFinding your pulse:This lab activity involves recording your pulse rate during various exercises. Below are descriptions of 2 ways that you can find you pulse rate. Before starting the lab, practice these methods and use the one that works best for you.
i) PULSE PLACE #1: The radial artery: The radial artery is the major supplier of blood to your arms. The best place to find the pulse of the radial artery is to put a hand down on your table/desk with the palm up. You should see two straight “bars” sticking up). Take your pointer finger and your middle finger and place them on the thumb side directly beside the two “bars”. Be sure to apply adequate pressure.
ii) PULSE PLACE #2: The carotid artery: The carotid artery is vital to your survival because it supplies your face and brain with blood. The best method for finding the carotid artery is to find the nearly 90-degree angle in your mandible (lower jaw). Place your pointer finger and middle finger on your neck directly below the place on the 90-degree angle where the mandible sticks out. Be sure to apply adequate pressure; you will not feel your pulse if you place your fingers lightly on the artery.
Procedures:1) The first part of the lab is to record a resting pulse, that is, how many times your heartbeats when you are sitting still. NOTE: you can collect data in a group for this lab, not everyone needs to complete the exercises! 2) Practice finding your pulse in the two places before recording a resting pulse. An important note: never use your thumb to try to find a pulse. When you applypressure to a surface with your thumb, you will feel your own pulse beating rather thananother person’s pulse. ) 3) Record a resting heartrate for everyone in your group.
4) Now record a resting respiration rate (how many breaths per minute when a person isresting, use rpm for the unit) for each person. 5) Pick an exercise, any exercise. This will be the exercise you do for the rest of the lab. It will have to be able to do both aerobically (something you could continue to do for more than 4 minutes) and anaerobically (would tire and could not continue if done correctly for only 2 min). Both exercises need to be done AFTER resting heart rate have been achieved.
Check with your teacher to see that you have chosen acceptable exercise options. 6) After recording the resting heart rate, complete the anaerobic part of the activity (as fast as you can for up to 2 minutes). Immediately upon completing the exercise, record your breathing rate and heart rate (for 10 seconds). Continue to record Heart rate and breathing rate every minute (or every 30 seconds if you can) UNTIL your heart rate returns to resting rate, and your breathing rate returns to normal/rest. NOTE: if you cannot figure out how to measure breathing rate every 30 seconds, take it once a minute.
7) Once the participant has returned to Resting heart rate, Complete procedure 5-6 for AEROBIC exercise for approximately 5 minutes. This is NOT anaerobic! Ensure you take heart rate at the end of your exercise, and every 30 seconds after until your heart rate AND breathing rate returns back to normal/rest 8) Make a graph of heart rate and breathing rate (please put both sets of data on the same graph) versus time after exercise. You will need to design an observation table to report your findings in your report. MAKE SURE YOU INCLUDE HEADINGS, UNITS OF MEASUREMENT AND A DESCRIPTIVE TITLE FOR YOUR OBSERVATIONS. Questions:What happened to your heart rate and breathing rate as you exercised? Do both types of exercise cause the same initial result? Describe using the graph/data. Which form of exercise took the longest to recover? By how much? Use data to support this answer.
Based upon the products of both aerobic and anaerobic exercise, what roles do these products have on changing the heart rate?Why did one exercise take longer to recover than the other? Explain in terms of what you know about why breathing/heart rates change. Include systems and transport within your body to answer. Why might a student get hungry following an exercise? Explain in terms of how humans get energy. How are the digestive, respiratory, and circulatory system all related in exercise?Please hand in a FORMAL Lab Report for Evaluation. Marking scheme: See marking scheme for this activityseparate sheet.
Roddie Marking Scheme:Activity 12: LAB–Heart/breathing rate and ExerciseHypothesis checked before doing labProcedure completed: summary of what was done2Signed data1Graphed final data–proper graphing of data4prelab: aero vs anaero: defined2prelab questions completed and accurate3Q1-2: what happened and which recovery longest2Q3-4: Complete answer with proper descriptions4Q5-6: why did they increase, and relating to systems2Communication: Correct Lab format + graph5Total Marks possible25Activity:3. 2 Plants and their systemscase study Maple SyrupObjective of the Activity: Understand that plants have systems and tissues much like animals. Any large multicellular organism requires systems and tissues to work together in order to survive and have all the cells survive. Materials or Research needed: Microscope and plant tissue slides, and if doing the carnation part of it, carnations and food colouringFinal comments: NOTEthe carnation aspect is not mandatory Activity 3. 2: What about plants?Guiding Questions:Do plants have organ systems? Look up the definition of an organ. How do plants absorb nutrients & water? What structures are involved in absorbing and transporting these substances?How do plants produce and move sugars? What is the purpose of the sugars to the plant?What is maple syrup and where does it come from? Information Sheet: Maple SyrupSap FlowSap flow requires cool nights (below freezing) followed by warm days.
In central Minnesota, sap typically flows best from mid-March to mid-April although it can flow anytime the trees are dormant from October to late April (Kramer and Kozlowski, 1960). Sap flow stops when the buds expand and the leaves develop (Marvin, 1958). Flow will also stop if the temperature is continuously above or below freezing or if the night temperatures are no longer below freezing (Kramer and Kozlowski, 1960). At night there is little sap flow.
As the day warms, sap flow begins. By noon, approximately 60% of the flow has occurred and the flow begins to decline (Kramer, 1983). The temperature of the previous night appears to be one of the most important factors for flow (Marvin, 1958). Physiological Explanation for Sap FlowFirst, let’s address a common misconception about sap flow. Since grade school we’ve learned that the xylem transports water from the roots to the aerial parts of the plant while the phloem transports sugars and other organic materials.
Though true, this has lead to the erroneous idea that sucrose-rich maple sap is being removed from the phloem – which is wrong. Maple sap that drips out of aspilein the tree comes from the xylem. In fact, this is the only time during the year when the fluid in the xylem is rich in sucrose and is an exception to the wisdom we garnered in grade school. The cause of maple sap flow is complex and our understanding of the process is relatively recent. Sap flow is not related to the normal process (Cohesion-Tension Theory) by which water is transported in stems during the growing season (Kozlowski &Pallardy, 1997).
According to thecohesion-tension model, water is essentially “pulled” up through a plant as it evaporates (transpiration) from leaf surfaces. Clearly this can’t be important to maple sap flow since: (1) maple trees lack leaves during the time period when sap flows; and (2) the xylem in trees that are transpiring and transporting water is under a negative pressure (or tension), not a positive pressure as is measured in maple stems during sap flow. Sap flow is not related to root pressure. Plantscangenerate sizable root pressures that can play a role in water movement. In some species, like birch (Betulasp. ) and grape (Vitissp.
), the sap that flows from cuts or wounds in the stem in the spring is a consequence of root pressure. The root pressure increases the stem pressure which results in sap flow. However, root pressureis notresponsible for maple sap flow (Marvin, 1958; Kramer, 1983; Kozlowski &Pallardy, 1997). Root pressure is absent in maple trees, even when there is stem pressure (Kozlowski &Pallardy, 1997). So, if root pressure and normal water transport mechanisms are not involved, what causes sap flow? The crucial factor is apparently related to the age-old observation that sap flow requires warm days and cool nights.
Stems must experience a freeze-thaw cycle for sap flow. When pieces of maple stems are given a source of water and then placed in a freeze-thaw cycle, they exhibit sap flow. During the cold period the stem pressure decreases and the stem absorbs water (Kozlowski &Pallardy, 1997). As the temperature cools, gases in the xylem dissolve and the pressure decreases. This draws water from adjacent cells which, in turn, are refilled by water absorbed from adjacent cells and ultimately from the root.
As the temperature continues to drop, water freezes along the inside walls of hollow xylem cells and in the intercellular spaces. Additional ice forms as water vaporizes from surrounding cells, much like the formation of frost on a misty winter morning. When ice formation is complete, the remaining gases in the stem are compressed and locked in ice. As the temperature warms, the ice melts and the ice-compressed gases expand forcing the sap out of the stem (Tyree, 2001). This hypothesis explains why freezing and thawing temperatures are required and why sap flow is always followed by re-absorption of water (Marvin, 1958). However, it doesn’t explain why sap flow requires: (1) sucrose in the sap, and (2) living cells.
It is possible that both are necessary for cellular respiration that yields carbon dioxide. This gas may be the main component of the gases that undergo thermal expansion and contraction during the freeze-thaw cycle (Marvin, 1958; Kramer, 1983). The sugars in the sap are derived from carbohydrates that accumulated in the stem during the previous season (Kramer and Kozlowski, 1960). These are converted to starch when the weather becomes cool in the autumn. The starch in living ray cells is hydrolyzed to sucrose as the temperature warms in the spring. The sugary sap is then pushed into the xylem (Milburn, 1979).
Why maple?Spring sap production is a relatively rare phenomenon, and occurs in the maples (genusAcer) and just a few others. So, what it is about maple? According to Dr. Mel Tyree (2001) the distribution of sap and gas in maple stems is the critical factor. Species like sugar maple and butternut (Juglanscinerea) that have air-filled fiber cells and water-filled vessels will exude sap. In contrast, species that do not exude sap, such as willow (Salix), aspen (Populus), elm (Ulmus), ash (Fraxinus) and oak (Quercus), have gas-filled vessels and water-filled fibers.
Syrup/Sap From Other SpeciesAs mentioned above, when grapes or birches are pruned in the late spring they will exude sap. This process is not temperature dependent as is the production of sap from maple trees and is due to root pressure. Because of the amount of bleeding that can occur you should avoid pruning grape vines in the late spring. Syrup can be made from birches, and is a commercially important product in some areas.
Hickory syrup isa sugarysyrup flavored by an extract of the bark of Shagbark hickory (Caryaovata). The bark is gathered, extracted, strained and aged. To Do: Label the following diagrams of a typical stem and root. You will need to research the location of xylem and phloem in each. ONScience10, p.
64-65, 73-75. Ask your teacher for a white carnation and some food colouring. Make a fresh cut in the carnation stem and place it in coloured water. (NOTE: this is not a mandatory part of the guide.
It is up to you if you choose to do this) After 2 days, record and explain your observations. Take the carnation home and give it to an important adult in your life. Activity:3. 3 Fish DissectionObjective of the Activity: Learn skills of dissection with proper tools and procedures, as well as observe the intricate connections between systems and how all operate to allow fish to surviveMaterials or Research needed: Obtain dissection guide, dissection tools and fish from the dispensary. The task at hand: this is a hands on dissection. Take pictures and make a visual photo essay of what you are seeing in the dissection.
This is not evaluated, rather it is a chance for you to actually understand and practice the skill of dissection. Final comments: Please ensure you dispose of your fish properly, and clean up the lab fully. Activity:3. 4Culminating Cancer ProjectObjective of the Activity: Your team’s goal is to determine the effectiveness of various concentrations of herbal extract and its ability to kill fast reproducing cells (simulated cancer cells).
This is how many treatment and drug tests begin, a test against a simple cell to see if the potential exists for the new drug to kill cells before testing on more complex cells, such as human cells. CulminatingCancer Treatment ProjectObjective: Your team’s goal is to determine the effectiveness of various concentrations of herbal extract and its ability to kill fast reproducing cells (simulated cancer cells). This is how many treatment and drug tests begin, a test against a simple cell to see if the potential exists for the new drug to kill cells before testing on more complex cells, such as human cells. Background:Yeast cells will be simulated cancer cells (eukaryotic, and fast reproducing).
Yeast grows well in sugar solution very quickly and effectivelyLiving yeast cells will actively pump out Bromothymol Blue, so living cells will remain colourless or clear, while dead cells will be blue. Serial Dilutions are an easy way to observe and measure either small amounts of substance of figure out a cell count from a stock solution. Vaccines and drug protocols often use very small quantities of a drug to assess effectiveness, so creating serial dilutions is an effective way to create effective small percentagesPrior to beginning your project, please complete:Decide upon a herb/spice to use, and create a series of solution, and bring the herb in for extractionFigure out a way to get a “stock” concentrated solution of your herbal extract. Learn how to do serial dilutions to calculate percentages (if starting with a stock solution of a certain percentage). Practice observing and counting both alive and dead yeast cells. Complete the pre-lab questions.
To Submit: A Formal Report to Westmount Pharmaceuticals, with the following sections in the report:Introduction: a brief introductory paragraph(s) outlining what the objective of the project was and why it is important to consider this report. Should use your pre-lab cancer questions to inform the readers of the report. Procedure:A description of the following methods:List all materials and quantities you needed to complete your studyHow you prepared your different herbal extractsHow you completed the testingHow you were able to measure dataResults: A graph(s) describing your results as well as a summary of what the graph supports (please note: a detailed graph and proper title needed for results)Discussion:This is a special discussion, you are to use your data to either support or refute the use of this herb as a possible chemotherapy treatment for cancer. You should outline why/why not, as well as brief descriptors as to role of chemotherapy drugs in the body. This should be a convincing (1/2 page to full page) writing to the company as to what your found and what you recommend.
Appendices with:Rough data signedRough work and procedure outlinedPre-lab questions (see below). PRE-LAB Questions:What is Cancer?Why is cancer a deadly if not treated?According to Cancer. ca, what is the top Cancers for Ontarians?What is chemotherapy? And how does chemotherapy work in terms of treating cancer?What are key side effects of chemotherapy, why do these side-effects happen?What is ethnobotany? Why is ethnobotany important for drug companies? What are the dependent and independent variables here? What are you controlling in this lab?Suggested Solution Preparation: here is one that has been used if you need one to start from:Take a set amount of herb chosen (___g), and grind up into a paste using the Mortar and pestle. You may need to add a small amount of water if needed to ensure full paste is made. Add the paste to an Erlenmeyer Flask, then carefully add 25mL of water to the flask.
Swirl and let sit for 10 minutes. This will be your CONCENTRATE or 100% solution. After the 10 minutes, begin making your serial dilutions. You will make a 50% solution, a 10% solution, 1% solution, 0. 1%, and a 0. 01% solution.
Making serial dilutions is easy, all you need to remember is that it should all equal out to 10mL in the end. To dilute by a factor of 10 (going from 100 to 10) requires 1mL of concentrate to 9mL of water. This gives you 10mL of the 10% solution. To make a 1% solution, you take 1mL from the 10% and add 9mL of water. This makes a 1% solution.
Making the 0. 1% follows a similar format. At the end of your dilution procedure, you will have 6 different solutions. Please ensure they are labeled correctlythen you can add your sugar and yeast suspensions here.