His works explore the relationship between artistic expression, celebrity culture and advertisement that flourished by the asses. After a successful career as a commercial illustrator, Warhol became a renowned and sometimes controversial artist. The Andy Warhol Museum in his native city, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania, holds an extensive permanent collection of art and archives. It is the largest museum in the United States dedicated to a single artist. Whorl’s art encompassed many forms of media, including hand drawing, painting, printmaking, photography, silk screening, sculpture, film, and music.
He was also a pioneer in computer-generated art using Amiga computers that were introduced in 1984, two years before his death. He founded Interview Magazine and was the author of numerous books, including The Philosophy of Andy Warhol and Oppose: The Warhol Sixties. He is also notable as a gay man who lived openly as such before the gay liberation movement. His studio, The Factory, was a famous gathering place that brought together distinguished intellectuals, drag queens, playwrights, Bohemian street people, Holly. Voodoo celebrities, and wealthy patrons.
Warhol NAS been the subject to numerous retrospective exhibitions, books, and feature and documentary films. He coined the widely used expression “1 5 minutes of fame”. Many of his creations are very collectible and highly valuable. The highest price ever paid for a Warhol painting is IIS$105 million for a 1963 canvas titled Silver Car Crash (Double Disaster)”. A 2009 article ninth Economist described Warhol as the “bellwether of the art market”. Whorl’s works include some of the most expensive paintings ever sold.
Insecure Artworks have no meaning Materialistic “I want to be a machine” Jackson Pollock Paul Jackson Pollock Unary 28, 1912 – August 1 1, 1956), known as Jackson Pollock, was an influential American painter and a major figure in the abstract expressionist movement. He was well known for his unique style of drip painting. During his lifetime, Pollock enjoyed considerable fame and notoriety, a major artist of his generation. Regarded as reclusive, he had a volatile personality, and struggled with alcoholism for most of his life.
In 1945, he married the artist Lee Crasser, who became an important influence on his career and on his legacy. Pollock died at the age of 44 in an alcohol-related, single-car accident; he was driving. In December 1956, several months after his death, Pollock was given a memorial retrospective exhibition at the Museum of Modern Art (Momma) in New York City. A larger, more comprehensive exhibition of his work was held there in 1967. In 1998 and 1999, his work was honored with large-scale retrospective exhibitions at Momma and at The Tate in London. 2] In 2000, Pollock was the subject of the film Pollock, directed by and starring Deed Harris, which won an Academy Award. Pop art is an art movement that emerged in the mid-asses in Britain and in the late asses in the United States. Pop art presented a challenge to traditions of fine art by including imagery from popular culture such as advertising, news, etc. In pop art, material is sometimes visually removed from its known context, isolated, and/or embodied with unrelated The concept of pop art refers not as much to the art itself as to the attitudes that led to it. 2] Pop art employs aspects of mass culture, such as advertising, comic books and mundane cultural objects. It is widely interpreted as a reaction to the then-dominant ideas of abstract expressionism, as well as an expansion upon them. And due to its utilization of found objects and images it is similar to Dada. Pop art is aimed to employ images of popular as opposed to elitist culture in art, emphasizing the banal or kitschy elements of any given culture, most often through the use of irony. 2] It is also associated with the artists’ use of mechanical means of reproduction or rendering techniques.
Pop art and minimalism are considered to be art movements that precede postmodern art, or are some to the earliest examples to Post-modern Art themselves. Product labeling and logos figure prominently in the imagery chosen by pop artists, like in the Campbell Soup Cans labels, by Andy Warhol. Even the labeling on the shipping box containing retail items has been used as subject matter in pop art, for example n Heartlessness’s Tomato Juice Box 1964, (pictured below), or his Brills Soap Box sculptures.
The Independent Group (G), founded in London in 1952, is regarded as the precursor to the pop art movement. They were a gathering of young painters, sculptors, architects, writers and critics who were challenging prevailing modernist approaches to culture as well as traditional views of Fine Art. The group discussions centered on popular culture implications from such elements as mass advertising, movies, product design, comic strips, science fiction and technology.
At he first Independent Group meeting in 1952, co-founding member, artist and sculptor Eduardo Apologia presented a lecture using a series of collages titled Bunk! That he had assembled during his time in Paris between 1947-1949. This material of “found objects” such as, advertising, comic book characters, magazine covers and various mass-produced graphics that mostly represented American popular culture. One of the images in that presentation was Apologia’s 1947 collage, I was a Rich Man’s Plaything, which includes the first use of the word “pop”, appearing in a cloud of smoke emerging from a revolver. ] Following Apologia’s seminal presentation in 1952, the GIG focused primarily on the imagery of American popular culture, particularly mass advertising. Subsequent coinage of the complete term “pop art” was made by John Michael for the ensuing movement in 1954. “Pop art” as a moniker was then used in discussions by GIG members in the Second Session of the GIG in 1955, and the specific term “pop art” first appeared in published print in an article by GIG members Alison and Peter Smithson in Arc, 1956. However, the term is often credited to British art critic/curator, Lawrence
Allow in a 1958 essay titled The Arts and the Mass Media, although the term he uses is “popular mass culture” . Nevertheless, Allow was one of the leading critics to defend the inclusion of the imagery found in mass culture in fine arts. Origins The origins of pop art in North America and Great Britain developed differently. In the United States, it marked a return to hard-edged composition and representational arts a response by artists using impersonal, mundane reality, irony and parody to defuse the personal symbolism and “painterly looseness” of Abstract Expressionism. ] By contrast, the origin in post-War Britain, while employing irony and parody, was more academic with a focus on the dynamic and paradoxical imagery of American popular culture as powerful, manipulative symbolic devices that were affecting whole patterns of life, while improving prosperity of a society. Early pop art in Britain was a matter of ideas fueled by American popular culture viewed from afar, while the American artists were inspired by the experience of living within that culture. 3] Similarly, pop art was both an extension and a repudiation of Dadaism. 3] While pop art and Dadaism explored some of the same subjects, pop art replaced the destructive, satirical, and anarchic impulses of the Dada movement with detached affirmation of the artifacts of mass culture. Among those artists seen by some as producing work leading up to Pop art reparable Picasso, Marcel Decamp, Kurt Schweitzer, and Man Ray. Although Pop Art began in the late asses, Pop Art in America was given its greatest impetus during the asses.
The term “Pop Art” was officially introduced in December 1962; the Occasion was a “Symposium on Pop Art” organized by the Museum of Modern Art. By this time, American advertising had adopted many elements and inflections of modern art and functioned at a very sophisticated level. Consequently, American artists had to search deeper for dramatic styles that would distance art from the well-designed and clever commercial materials. As the British viewed American popular culture imagery from a somewhat removed perspective, their views were often instilled with romantic, sentimental and humorous overtones.
By contrast, American artists being bombarded daily with the diversity of mass-produced imagery, produced work that was generally more bold and aggressive. Two important painters in the establishment of America’s pop art vocabulary were Jasper Johns and Robert Reassurances. While the paintings of Reassurances have relationships to the earlier work of Kurt Schweitzer and other Dadaists, his concern was with social issues of the moment. His approach was to create art out of ephemeral materials and using topical events in the life of everyday America gave his work a unique quality. 7] Johns’ and Raucousness’s work of the asses is classified as Neo-Dada, and is visually distinct from the classic American Pop Art which began in the early asses. Of equal importance to American pop art is Roy Liechtenstein. His work robbery defines the basic premise of pop art better than any other through parody. Selecting the old-fashioned comic strip as subject matter, Liechtenstein produces a hard-edged, precise composition that documents while it parodies in a soft manner.
Liechtenstein used oil madman paint in his best known works, such as Drowning Girl (1963), which was appropriated from the lead story in DC Comics’ Secret Hearts #83. (Drowning Girl now is in the collection of Museum of Modern Art, New York. ) Also featuring thick outlines, bold colors and Ben-Day dots to represent certain colors, as if created by photographic reproduction. Liechtenstein would say of his own work: Abstract Expressionists “put things down on the canvas and responded to what they had done, to the color positions and sizes.
My style looks completely different, but the nature of putting down lines pretty much is the same; mine Just don’t come out looking calligraphic, like Pollock’s or Saline’s. “ Pop art merges popular and mass culture with fine art, while injecting humor, irony, and recognizable imagery and content into the mix. The paintings of Liechtenstein, like those of Andy Warhol, Tom Wassermann and others, share a direct attachment to the monoplane image of American popular culture, but also treat the subject in an impersonal manner clearly illustrating the idealization of mass production. 7] Andy Warhol is probably the most famous figure in Pop Art, in fact, art critic Arthur Dante once called Warhol “the nearest thing to a philosophical genius the history of art has produced”. Warhol attempted to take Pop beyond an artistic style to a life style, and his work often displays a lack of human affectation that dispenses with the irony and parody of many of his peers In the early sixties Warhol became deeply interested in death. Searching for new material Warhol screened the media and became distanced by pictures to electric chairs, car crashes, and race riots.
As a result he created the Death in America series, and the viewers were shocked. Warhol blatantly depicted death over and over again shown off centered, layered, or ripped down the middle, and thought the photos were shocking they were also strangely compelling. On first viewing one searches the black image of the car crashes to find the bodies but once the mangled limbs come into view, it is impossible not to see them again whenever the image reappears. Like he crowd around a Jumper, the viewers of Whorl’s series were strangely captivated in a mixture of horror and curiosity.
In contrast most modernist depictions of death, such as Picasso La Vie, are depicted by symbolism and the actual act or aftermath is never shown. Warhol, however, left nothing to the imagination. Part of the reason Warhol decided to create the series was his own confusion over death. Warhol often talked of death as though it were simply a state of non-being, where there was no sensory stimuli what so ever and the connection between the proliferation of images in Pop Art and desensitizing was not lost on him.
Instead of complicated symbolism and deeper meaning behind death, Pop Art reflected the images of America and the meaning that is left came directly from the interpretation of the viewer, who was being desensitizing to the image with every repetition in Whorl’s exhibit. As Andy put it, “the more you look at the exact same thing, the more the meaning goes away, and the better and emptier you feel. ” Warhol did not Just have problems with death as a concept, he also had a fear of it physically, and consequently he was afraid of hospitals. So he was deeply affected when he was shot on June 3rd 1968 by Valerie Solaris and nearly died.
Somehow, Warhol managed to pull through and slowly recovered, but his meditations on death had changed. Instead of the more shocking photos of the early ass’s Warhol took the concept of death to a more theoretical abstract level and considered mortality and philosophy more, almost as if the shooting had assured him of his own reality. His paintings of the time after his recovery were his Guns, Knives, Crosses, and Skulls. This philosophical side was particularly strong in the Skulls series, which, besides the obvious Hamlet reference, also showed how Warhol was pondering mortality by the inclusion of himself in overall skull portraits.
Both periods covering death in America and Whorl’s more morbid thoughts contributed enormously to the desensitizing message of Pop Art as they were by far some of the most powerful images he reproduced. 1 . Andy Warhol mendaciousness 2. Get to know the king of pop Art!! 3. Literature to Interview magazine to theatre to philosophy to touch almost every famous Andy weird genius Warhol? РІР?СћLove commercial love fame So, if this is true, where did anyone get the idea that Andy was a genius? Largely from the fact that Warhol did everything.
His empire expanded over all mediums from TV to film to iterative to Interview magazine to theatre to philosophy to touch almost every famous celebrity of the ass and ass to his paintings and his installations. 4. King of Pop ArtРІР?Сћ Andy Warhol was born in 1928. РІР?Сћ Born in Pittsburgh as the son of Slovakia immigrants. РІР?Сћ His original name was Andrew Warhol. РІР?Сћ When Andy was 13 years old, His father was as a construction worker and died in an accident. РІР?Сћ Andy showed an early talent in drawing and painting. РІР?Сћ He studied commercial art at the Carnegie Institute of Technology in Pittsburgh. Р?Сћ Graduated in 1949. РІР?Сћ In New York where he irked as an illustrator for magazines for commercial advertising. Such as: I) Vogue it) Harpers Bazaar. РІР?Сћ Andy Warhol died February 22, 1987 from complications after a gall bladder operation. РІР?Сћ Two years later, in May 1994 the Andy Warhol Museum opened in his home town Pittsburgh in Pennsylvania. 5. РІР?Сћ Andy Warhol is the pop icon in 1952. РІР?Сћ In 1952- Andy Warhol had his first one-man show exhibition at the Hugo Gallery in New York. РІР?Сћ In 1956- he had an important group exhibition at the renowned Museum of Modern Art. Р?Сћ Warhol started painting daily objects of mass production like Campbell Soup cans and Coke bottles. Р?Сћ he became a famous figure in the New York art scene. 6. РІР?Сћ It was an art studio where he employed in a rather chaotic way “art workers” to mass produce mainly prints and posters but also other items like shoes designed by the artist. РІР?Сћ Apart from being an Art Producing Machine, the Factory served as a filmmaker studio. РІР?Сћ Warhol made over 300 experimental underground films – most rather bizarre and some rather pornographic. РІР?Сћ In 1974- the Factory was moved to 860 Broadway. Р?Сћ In 1975- Warhol published THE philosophy of Andy Warhol. РІР?Сћ Warhol was a homosexual with a slightly bizarre personality. РІР?Сћ He dyed is hair straw-blond. Later he replaced his real hair by blond and silver-grey wigs. 7. РІР?Сћ The pop artist loved cats, and images of them can be found on quite a few of his art works. РІР?Сћ Andy friends described him as a true workaholic. РІР?Сћ Warhol was obsessed by the ambition to become famous and wealthy. And he knew he could achieve authenticate dream only by hard work. РІР?Сћ Warhol promoted other artists like Keith Haring or Robert Naphthalene. . What is consumerism? РІР?Сћ Consumerism is a social and economic order that is based on the systematic creation and fostering of a desire to purchase goods ever greater and services in amounts. . РІР?Сћ commercialism grew in American culture. No longer where small farmers producing for a limited regional population. РІР?Сћ Companies manufacturing improved so that commodities could be produced quickly and cheaply. РІР?Сћ People began to buy more and more of their needs. People also migrated to cities, so they were not producing physically as much as they were consuming. 10.
ANDY VS. MODERNISTS The Modernists create a new art that encapsulated the mindset of people and not the physical description of them. 0 only art with layers of meaning was considered, “high art,” and as a result, art became classed and elitist. Art also gained new classifications as “high” art was classed off into other categories like “folk” and “pop,” and “mass” culture began to correspond to “low” culture. 0 Warhol sought to alter that perspective. O he challenged the concepts of Modernism and modernist art He altered perceptions about what makes up an artist leavening the public wondering who exactly is an artist? And he shattered cultural concepts about how art should be displayed. O by premiering his art out of museums in small shows with live bands and interactive exhibits, parading the commercialism of culture, commingling his art and confining himself, Warhol Halloween the modernist perspective and won, becoming one of the most recognizable artists of the 20th century. 1 1 . ANDY & CONSUMERISM 12. РІР?Сћ adored the demagnification of goods in America and on the other hand was frustrated with the lack of creativity and originality in American society. Nonuser culture for itsРІР?Сћ Complimenting ability to unify Americans of all different backgroundsРІР?Сћ He dropped d the easel, let the oils behind, and made silkscreen and polymer paint the way to go. РІР?Сћ Streamlining the process of art Warhol made himself, in a sense, dispensable by applying the same assembly line techniques he saw in consumer society to his work. РІР?Сћ Warhol even shattered stereotypes by dealing with consumerism as a subject since the very concept of turning consumer art into high art would be shocking to any modernist. 3. РІР?Сћ Warhol loved for consumerism can be explained through his loved for machine. РІР?Сћ . He went so far as to make himself and his artwork more mechanized by using the Factory and the silk screening process. РІР?Сћ Andy marked for cutting and screening. Then he would usually give it to his assistants from the Factory with instructions on color, number, and other variations, so that often he wouldn’t have a physical hand in the production of his works. Р?Сћ This non-personal touch held up consumerism that Andy love. 14. Warhol dealt fear to stifled new ideas that by the shocking amount of repetition in his work. РІР?Сћ The viewer of a Warhol show was saturated with the same image until it gradually lost its meaning. The more times an image was seen the less it signified, as the viewer became more used to seeing it. РІР?Сћ Viewers began to realize through this saturation that through lack of variety the senses and emotions were dulled to retain things much in the way that the concept of media saturation is feared today. 5. One Hundred Campbellsport cancans not treated imposition or oceanographer’s it is about repetition ,packaging, labels and Tippecanoe of the worldliness by commodities undernourishment’s aims to force outlook at it length and considerateness than be seduced bit or simply glance and passerby. Non the way we would in supermarket . 16. “Eve never made the separation between , say the museum and threadbare store. I mean I enjoy both of them and I want to combine them Andy Warhol- catalogue of pop art. 1 РІР?Сћ Why would any artist shun originality?
For Warhol, part of his message was the lack of creativity and originality in American culture. РІР?Сћ Warhol was constantly reproducing the images of others and reproducing his own image with slight variations. At first, his artwork, image, and message seemed like a critical view of American culture, but Warhol, in fact, professed to love the mass culture of America. 17. РІР?Сћ His weird thinking of replicationРІР?Сћ “l think that once you see emotions from a certain angle you can never think of them as real again. ” So Andy made himself replicable, replaceable.
He hired a man named Allen Midget to impersonate him on a lecture tour in 1967РІР?Сћ His principle of art maybe?? РІР?Сћ He striver to be as two dimensional as his paintings and succeeded to a large degree as people were seeing Andy Warhol all over the place. His art was replicable, his images were taken from the mass culture, and even his physical body cold be replaced. So if everything he did could have been done by others what made him so revolutionary? 18. CONCLUSION ANDY WARHOL USED THE CONCEPT OF CONSUMERISM IN HIS ART…..
TOT CHALLENGE THE MODERNIST ABOUT HAVING HIGH ART AND LOW READOPTED HIS ART TO MASS THENCEFORWARD HIS PRINCIPLE OF REPLICATION 19. Development Of Neo- Pop Art assesРІР?Сћ -Rather a resurgence of artworks based on popular culture. РІР?Сћ -Neo-Pop Art consists of a revised form of Pop Art adapted from its forefathers, a rebirth of recognizable objects and celebrities from popular culture with icons and symbols of the present times. РІР?Сћ -Neo-Pop Art relies heavily on the mass media boot tort intelligence/inspiration but also tort promoting their work.
Pop art was influenced by the consumerism-driven economy of the asses and ass. The music of the era also influenced the art genre. Tunes by Elvis Presley, and the Battles, greatly influenced British pop artist such as EDUARDO APOLOGIA (1924- 2005). American pop art’s origins are slightly different than the British. It was a sense of rebellion which propelled it in the United States. Andy Warhol and other pop artist wanted to break away from the structured norm of traditional paintings. As a result, asymmetrical images of popular politicians and public figures painted in bright hues became the norm.
Pop Art showed people how to look at things in a more bright colored and better way, and this was the main influence. Emerged after world war I l. Andy Warhol “l want to be a machine” “l am a deeply superficial person” “In fifteen minutes everybody will be famous. ” The Factory The factory was Andy Whorl’s studio in NYC, where he made his iconic pop art. Was a popular hangout for artsy types and became famous for its parties. Andy Whorl’s factory was given the name ‘The Factory as this is where he created his famous pop art masterpieces.
His artwork was quite a long process, with many people working on their individual things at once, almost like working in a factory. “It wasn’t called the Factory for nothing. It was where the assembly for the silkscreen happened. While one person was making a silkscreen, somebody else would be liming a screen test. Every day something new. ” Says John Scale, Welsh musician. The Factory was more than a place where Warhol worked. He surrounded himself with lots of people. Collaborators, movie stars, artists, musicians, actresses, drug addicts, drag queen, free thinkers, and more. All of these people were known as Whorl’s superstars.
The people who Warhol surrounded himself with at The Factory are those who inspired his work. He was very inspired by the artsy kinds, and this shined through in his works. He photographed famous people, commonly actresses, and turned these photographs into pop art. Some famous names of those who often went to the factory were… Lou Reed, Edie Sedgwick, Bob Dylan, Salvador Dali, Betsey Johnson The Factory was the hip hangout for artsy types, amphetamine users, and the Warhol superstars. It was famed for its groundbreaking parties. In the studio, Whorl’s workers would make silkscreen and lithographs.
In 1968, Warhol moved the Factory to the sixth floor of the Decker Building, 33 Union Square West, near Man’s Kansas City, a club Warhol and his entourage would frequently visit. Speaking in 2002, John Scale said “It wasn’t called the Factory for nothing. It was where the assembly line for the silkscreen happened. While one person was making a silkscreen, somebody else would be filming a screen test. Every day something By the time Warhol had become famous, he was working day and night on his paintings. To create his art, Warhol used silkscreen so that he could mass- produce images the way corporations mass-produce consumer goods.
In order to continue working the way he did, he assembled a menagerie of adult film performers, drag queens, socialites, drug addicts, musicians, and free-thinkers that became known as the Warhol Superstars, to help him. These “art-workers” helped him create his paintings, starred in his films, and basically developed the atmosphere for which the Factory became legendary. The Silver Factory The original Factory was often referred to by those who frequented it as the Silver Factory. Covered with tin foil and silver paint, the Factory was decorated by Whorl’s friendlily Name, who was also the in-house photographer at the Factory.
Warhol would often bring in silver balloons to drift around the ceiling. Upon visiting Billy Name’s apartment, which had been decorated in a similar manner, Warhol fell in love tit the idea and asked him to do the same for his recently leased loft. The silver represented the decadence of the scene, as well as the proto-glam of the early sixties. Silver, fractured mirrors, and tin foil were the basic decorating materials loved by the early amphetamine users of the sixties. Billy Name was the perfect person to take this style and cover the whole factory, even the elevator.
By combining the industrial structure of the unfurnished studio with the glitter of silver and what it represented, Warhol was commenting on American values, as he did so often in his art. The years spent at the Factory were known as the Silver Era, not solely because of the design, but because of the decadent and carefree lifestyle full of money, parties, drugs and fame. Aside from his two-dimensional art, Andy also used the Factory as a base to make shoes, films, commissions, sculptures and Just about everything else that the Warhol name could be attached to and sold.