During this period, emphasis shifted to the importance of the individual’s experience in the world and his or her interpretation of that experience, rather than interpretations handed down by the church or tradition. Romantic literature is characterized by several features. It emphasized the dream, or inner, world of the individual. The use of visionary, fantastic, or drug-induced imagery was prevalent. There was a growing suspicion of the established church, and a turn toward pantheism (the belief that God is a part of the universe rather than separate from it). Romantic literature emphasized the individual self and the value of the individual’s experience. The concept of “the sublime” (a thrilling emotional experience that combines awe, magnificence, and horror) was introduced. Feeling and emotion were viewed as superior to logic and analysis.
The impressionist art movement originated in France in the last quarter of the 19th entry as a reaction against traditional art and its strict rules. A group of painters who became known as the Impressionists decided to gain independence from the standards prescribed by the French Academy of Fine Arts and France’s annual official art exhibition called The Salon. Impressionism covers approximately two decades, from the late asses through the asses. The term impressionist was first used by French art critic Louis Leroy in 1874 based on Motet’s painting Impression, Sunrise. Leroy found the term fitting to describe the loose, undefined and “unfinished” style that Monet and several other artists applied to their paintings.
A preliminary drawing for a wallpaper pattern is more highly finished than this seascape. ” Louis Leroy, 1874, criticism of Motet’s Impression, Sunrise What is Impressionism? Impressionist painters strove to break away from the traditional rules of subject matter, technique, and composition in painting, and created their own, unique style. Subjects of Impressionist Paintings Scenes from Everyday Life Unlike conservative painters who focused on portraying dramatic, often historical scenes of idealized beauty and moral or religious meaning, the Impressionists chose ordinary scenes from everyday life as the subject matter of their work. They put emphasis on capturing reality and depicting what they saw at a given moment.
Nature Nature was elevated to become the subject of the painting, rather than a backdrop for another scene, as was the case in traditional art. In painting landscapes, the Impressionists tried to put on canvas what they saw in front of them, without idealization. They often made a seemingly ordinary part of nature (a riverside path, a field of haystacks) the focal point of their work. Camille Pissarro: Pommels en Flyers, Reagan People Impressionist artists were interested in portraying people in everyday, informal tuitions: the middle class during leisure time activities in gardens, parks, or at the seaside, and workmen or rural people at work.
One novelty of people portraits was the introduction of nudes who, “at the time, were an acceptable subject in allegorical or historical paintings, but not in scenes of everyday Pierre Renoir: Oarsmen at Chateau Paris With the 19th century Industrial Revolution and the reconstruction of Paris into a modern city, the city scene became one of the Impressionists’ favorite subjects: “women wearing the latest fashions, the airy new streets and suburbs of Paris, modern modes of transportation … And the riverside and seacoast resorts where Parisian spent their leisure time. “* Gustavo Celebrate: Paris, a Rainy Day, 1877 Still Life Painting still life allowed the Impressionists to experiment with the depiction of changing light and to study the effects of light and shadow on the look of ordinary objects. Paul CР?В©Zane: Natural Mortar Con Tend Impressionist Technique Color The Impressionists distanced themselves from the somber tones of earlier paintings.
They generally avoided the use of black and earth colors and instead used light, vibrant colors to give their paintings luminosity and to capture the changing effect of unlighted on the scenes they painted. Bright, contrasting colors were put onto the canvas one next to or on top of each other, often without prior mixing or subsequent blending. Brush Work In order to convey the movement and changing nature of a passing moment, the Impressionists used quick, broken brushstrokes that were left without any further smoothing. This method allows the viewer to clearly see the traces of the brush and gives impressionist paintings an unfinished appearance. The Impressionists worked quickly, sometimes in one sitting, in order to capture the fleeting moment and to give their work a spontaneous feel.
Locale Impressionist painters often worked outdoors, not in a studio, to be in close touch with nature and to be able to directly observe the effects of changing sunlight, weather and movement. Composition The Impressionists broke the traditional rules of composition and opened their style to experimenting. In their attempts to capture a given moment, they omitted detail in favor of the overall effect of the painting. They looked at their subjects from unusual angles and often cropped or framed their work in a way that was new to painting. A scene is often captured as if in passing or through the lens of a camera (a new invention at the time that enabled the Impressionists to study movement and gesture in real-life situations). Post-Impressionism Henry Rousseau Year 1892 Type Oil on canvas Dimensions 57 CM x 110 CM (22. 4 x 43. It-I) Location Presently in the Getty Museum in Los Angels Post-Impressionism (also spelled Postmodernists) is the term coined by the British artist and art critic Roger Fry in 1910 to describe the development of French art since Meant. Fry used the term when he organized the 1910 exhibition Meant and the Post- Impressionists. Post-Impressionists extended Impressionism while rejecting its imitations: they continued using vivid colors, thick application of paint, distinctive brush strokes, and real-life subject matter, but they were more inclined to emphasize geometric forms, to distort form for expressive effect, and to use unnatural or arbitrary color.
Expressionism The Expressionism art style was a wide-ranging international and far reaching modern art movement that encompassed not Just painting but cinema, theatre, literature and dance. The term expressionism is used to signify the use of distortion and exaggeration in the interests of emotional effect. Unlike the Impressionists, who ride to recreate an impression of the objective world, the expressionism art style was concerned with the imposition of the artists own personality, feelings and emotions onto their representation of the world. The Expressionist artists wanted to capture their emotional response to the world around them, rather then Just recreating what they saw. Expressionism history can be traced back to the beginning of the 20th century, but most clearly to Germany in 1910.
The work of the German Expressionist painters had its roots in the Fauves and Post Impressionists, going right back to the Romantic’ artists of the nineteenth century, who were also interested in the idea of manipulating reality with view to expressing an emotional feeling. The expressionism art style is typified in modern painting by the use of intense and UN-naturalistic color and the distortion and exaggeration of form for emotional effect. The beginnings of this can be clearly seen in artists such as Van Gogh, with his use of pure color, agitated brush-marks and distortions of shapes. The German Expressionists were an important element in Expressionism history, and in particular he group called Die Bruce (The Bridge), formed in 1912 and led by Ernst Ludwig Kerchief.
Other members of Die Bruce included Erich Heckle, and Karl Schmidt- ROTFL. Later members included Max Peachiest and Emil Molded. Fauvism Henry Matisse, Portrait of Madame Matisse (The Green Stripe), 1906, Staten Museum for Skunks, Copenhagen, Denmark Fauvism is the style of less Fauves (French for “the wild beasts”), a loose group of early twentieth-century Modern artists whose works emphasized painterly qualities and strong color over the representational or realistic values retained by Impressionism. While Fauvism as a style began around 1900 and anointed beyond 1910, the movement as such lasted only a few years, 1904-1908, and had three exhibitions. The leaders of the movement were Henry Matisse and AndР?В© Derail.
Artists and style AndР?В© Derail, Self-portrait in the Studio, 1903, National Gallery of Australia, Sydney, Australia Besides Matisse and Derail, other artists included Albert Marquee, Charles Camion, Louis Valetta, the Belgian painter Henry Penelope, Maurice Marino, Jean Pup, Maurice De Volcanic, Henry Managing, Rural Duffy, Tone Fries, Georges Rural, Jean Metzger, the Dutch painter Ekes van Dongle, the Swiss painter Alice Bailey, and Georges Braque’s (subsequently Picasso partner in Cubism). The paintings of the Fauves were characterized by seemingly wild brush work and strident colors, while their subject matter had a high degree of simplification and abstraction. Fauvism can be classified as an extreme development of Van Sago’s Post-Impressionism fused with the pointillism of Serrate and other Neo-limitlessness painters, in particular Paul Signal.
Other key influences were Paul CР?В©Zane and Paul Gauguin, whose employment of areas of saturated colorРІР?вЂќnotably in paintings from TahitiРІР?вЂќstrongly influenced Drain’s work at Collier in 1905. Cubism Cubism was the first ‘abstract’ art style which began in the early asses when artists such as Georges Braque’s (French) and Pablo Picasso (Spanish) began painting in such a way that was far removed from traditional art styles. The Cubists tried to create a new way of seeing things in art. Many of their subjects, be they people or landscapes, were represented as combinations of basic geometric shapes – sometimes showing multiple viewpoints of a particular image.
This approach was related more to the way we see images in our ‘minds-eye’ rather than in real life, that is if we close our eyes ND try to see an image, perhaps of a friend or a family member, it is often hard to visualize the ‘whole’ image – we usually see parts or fractured pieces. Cubist pictures are therefore often described as looking like pieces of fractured glass. The cubists were influenced most by the art of the Post Impressionist painter Paul ©Zane. Picasso described C&;©Zane as the father of us all’. It was ;©Zane who began the move to look at the basic shapes in nature. Dadaism was an art movement of the European avian-garden in the early 20th century.
It began in Zurich, Switzerland in 1916, spreading to Berlin shortly hereafter. To quote Dona Bud’s The Language of Art Knowledge, Dada was born out of negative reaction to the horrors of World War l. This international movement was begun by a group of artists and poets associated with the Cabaret Voltaire in Zurich. Dada rejected reason and logic, prizing nonsense, irrationality and intuition. The origin of the name Dada is unclear; some believe that it is a nonsensical word. Others maintain that it originates from the Romania artists Tristan Tsar and Marcel Junco’s frequent use of the words dad, dad, meaning yes, yes in the Romania language.
Another theory says that the name “Dada” came during a meeting of the group when a paper knife stuck into a French-German dictionary happened to point to ‘dada’, a French word for ‘hobbyhorse’. The movement primarily involved visual arts, literature, poetry, art manifestoes, art theory, theatre, and graphic design, and concentrated its anti-war politics through a rejection of the prevailing standards in art through anti-art cultural works. In addition to being anti-war, Dada was also anti- bourgeois and had political affinities with the radical left. Dada activities included public gatherings, demonstrations, and publication of art/literary Journals; passionate coverage of art, politics, and culture were topics often discussed in a variety of media.
Key figures in the movement included Hugo Ball, Emmy Henning, Hans Arp, Rural Houseman, Hannah Hooch, Johannes Beaded, Tristan Tsar, Francis Pica, Richard Helpfulness, George Gross, John Heartfelt, Marcel Decamp, Beatrice Wood, Kurt Schweitzer, and Hans Richter, among others. The movement influenced later styles like the avian-garden and downtown music movements, and groups including surrealism, Nouveau ;©aliases, pop art and Fluxes. Dada is the groundwork to abstract art and sound poetry, a starting point for performance art, a prelude to postmodernism, an influence on pop art, a celebration of antiwar to be later embraced for anarchy-political uses in the asses and the movement that lay the foundation for Surrealism. Surrealism Surrealism is a cultural movement that began in the early asses, and is best known for its visual artworks and writings.
Surrealist works feature the element of surprise, unexpected Juxtapositions and non sequitur; however, many Surrealist artists and rites regard their work as an expression of the philosophical movement first and foremost, with the works being an artifact. Leader And;© Breton was explicit in his assertion that Surrealism was above all a revolutionary movement. Surrealism developed out of the Dada activities during World War I and the most important center of the movement was Paris. From the asses onward, the movement spread around the globe, eventually affecting the visual arts, literature, film, and music of many countries and languages, as well as political thought and practice, philosophy, and social theory.