Drawing on Debates in Leisure and Sport Theory Essay

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Football is one of the most powerful cultures in the world, politically, economically and socially. Globalization is the set of processes, whereby – facilitated by enhanced global flows of such things as industry, investment, individuals and information (Omaha, 1990). The world is becoming evermore economically and politically more integrated according to Bliss gamma; Smith (2001). Berger gamma; Huntington (2002) also believe the world is becoming a lot more culturally & additionally more homogeneity, or in Other words, ‘borderless’.
Schools, (2001) even describes the world as a ‘single place’. Maguire, (1999) stated that there were three main characteristics Of Globalization; Economic – referring to the goods and services of world products and the world market, Social and Cultural – seen as the flow of cultural forms such as music and sport, the labor flow of workers around the world and the flow of ideas, ranging from political ideologies to sub-cultural norms, And Technological, which is the movement of equipment and media such as the internet.
Post-Modernity can be translated to be ‘beyond the now’, post-modernity as been very hard to define as it embraces elements to philosophy, art and cultural mood, It is a reaction against modernism, “Modernism is an approach to life that humans can progress through the use of science, technology and rationality’ (Oakley, 199830) Therefore, postmodernism can be described as a late 20th century style in the arts and criticism that represents a departure from modernism Post-modernity implies that technologies have collapsed national boundaries and that we are more worldwide citizens.
Because of these boundaries being broken, some writers believe that individuality is more important and that there is a avider range of tastes and cultural pastimes. There are many opponents of post-modernism, which believe we still live in the same modern society. These people usually use the term postmodernism’ to describe a cultural reaction vitamin modern societies, e. G. A sense of disillusionment. Post Modernists’ on the other hand, argue that eve as a human race have entered a new era beyond modernity (Cochlea, 1999).
Therefore, Post- modernism is a set of theories suggesting that society is undergoing a series Of radical changes Which modernism is coming to an end, being rejected by people or even changing to into a new order (Harris, 1999). Many writers give many different views to how the world is changing and Whether we are living in a post-modern world. Factual believed that society was categorized and divided practices existed. This means that spatial and social control of individual’s leads to people being objectified and oppressed by those who do the objectifying (Markup and Pricing 2006).
Factual, (1977) also suggests that the truth is relative and gained through a societal process called ‘discourse’ meaning for example, the nature effeminate has been a social discourse as the IEEE of women’s rights has massively changed around the world and shifted into creating a more equal elite for women. This is the Transformation idea that there is no single cause behind globalization of an idea but possibly many changes could contribute over time.
This fundamentally differs from Giggler (1981) who suggests that there is a rejection of western culture and society and that, for example Islamic countries are not compatible with western economic traditions. Another key writer on the subject of post Modernity is Baudelaire (1989), who believes we live in a media dominated world and that we as the population have meanings mediated for that and our lives gain meaning from consumption and we become ‘products’.
Banana (1989) disagreed with the concept of modernity and believes that it has died, with a new reality being constructed. The neo- Marxist Feeders Jameson (1991) connect post-modernity to changes in organized capitalism. Jameson (1 991 :400) defines postmodernism as the ‘cultural logic Of late capitalism’ and states that it is characterized by the communication of media and cultural content, from sport to art.
Ideally, globalization is a function in which the Western cultural account’ (Oxford 995:2) is being globally diffused. Western cultural items, forms and expressions are being adopted, albeit at different speeds, more or less everywhere including throughout East Asia (Kim, 2000). The growing popularity of football in East Asia matches what is occurring in other continents around the world, providing an instructive example of how Western cultural account is being presented and acquired by a significant non-western-cultural other.
Football provides a case study, which demonstrates that East Asia is actively engaging With dialogue With the West rather than simply accepting or rejecting the Western culture. In a way, East Asia is firstly scrutinizing the football as a commodity, coming from the west, then selectively blending into western culture and then projecting back the results, (Magnetometer & Horned, 2004) This shows that the East is proactively contributing to the shift towards a Hyperboloids world with modern football: One, which in the fullest sense is a ‘single place’ (Robertson, 1992).
On the other hand though, a Skeptical perspective may be important to think about as what is emerging from East Asia may not be modern football with a single western ultra, but instead football, Vichy delivers a diverse amount of variations towards football. This can be described as Heterogeneity, which means the coming together but in a different image (Blab, 1977). Such an outcome may or may not be conductive to greater global order and stability, dependent as this not (at least just) on cultural homogeneity, but also on the underlying, more fundamental material or structural factors, rooted in the global political economy. Crispin, 2004) In East Asia, along with other places in the world, the Western culture is interacting with local cultures in a process of mediation and modification. (apart from places rejecting it outright). The results are global and local, and the results are experienced at a both lower and higher ego-political level. The spread of football across Asia and the way the game has not only adopted but also adapted throughout the region, and the consequences for football as the world game provides a case for highlighting the general and more inclusive features of globalization.
In 2002, Japan and South Korea hosted the World Cup. This competition presents and unprecedented opportunity to observe the mechanics f one of the most powerful forces in the modern world (Globalization) through the prism of one of the most powerful cultural manifestations – Football. An examination of world football clarifies how the cultural, political and economic dimensions of Globalization and of social life on the global, nation-state and local planes are intimately intertwined and inter-dependent, even though global capitalism, for instance, may be the main motor driving the rest.
Although the keen television interest in Asia, it isn’t triggering that much of a significant interest in local football. Horned, Tomlinson, Handle, Woodward, 2012) The 2002 World Cup became a highly charged competition between two nation States, governments in the race to globalize. (Cocoas gamma; Saunders, 2002) The field of play is not only cultural, but also economic or politico:-economic.
The rivalry between Tokyo gamma; Seoul surrounding the staging of the World Cup therefore reflect not just the achievements in resisting globalization, as success in embracing the processes involved, including along the cultural dimension. (Gang Seek-Jaw, 2002) It might he argued, that as the process of Globalization appears to intensify with ever more instant and globally orientated communicative systems in the new media age, that European Football and popular culture in general is becoming more ‘Americanizes’ (Belle ; Haynes, 2004).
The point made by Belle and Haynes (2004) agrees with Baudelaire (1989) explaining how we live in a media orientated world. On the other hand Steinberg, (2003) discussed that for example, the David Beckman transfer saga when Manchester United sold him to Real Madrid, a rival in European football, demonstrated that in certain aspects European sport remains very different culturally and economically from the US Hough.
He stated that ‘in American sports for a team to voluntarily part with a superstar it will only do so to trade for someone better or when the team can no longer afford to keep them’ (Steinberg, 2003:13). He disagrees with the fact that even European sport is becoming ‘Americanizes’ and says the game isn’t being lost to the mercenary values and obsession with marketability that drive American sports league. But, after saying that, When Beckman signed for Real, Chris McGuire, sports marketing manager of Aids said ‘We have never come across anything like it. ћWe have had an astonishing increase Of the Real Madrid product’ but although Real’s interest in Beckman was partly monitored by business considerations, but the actual circumstances could not looks less familiar across the Atlantic. (Belle, 2007) Modern day football has become big business. ‘Sports have never been so heavily packaged, promoted, presented and played as commercial products as they are today – (Oakley, 1998:326). The main reason for this is the centralization of sport.
Maguire (1999) gave three main processes to how commensuration has affected sport. These were: Specialization of sport, Professionalisms of sport and Sponsorship to sport. Modern day football has almost gone through a capitalist transformation, Under capitalism, football becomes a market opportunity for owners to purchase athletes skill and produce a spectacle they sell to spectators, sponsors and various media outlets, (Ritzier & Ryan, 2011).
The maturation of nation based capitalism in western Europe and north America was accompanied by the emergence of institutionalized sport. (Slack, 2004). Historian Harry Brakeman discussed that by codifying sporting practice and mass spectators the ‘patrician-industrialist power bloc’ ensured hat sport would contribute to the centralization of urban leisure culture. The Media has played a massive part in the Globalization of football.
For instance, the Premiership was established and ready to make its debut at the start of the 92/93 season and was set up as a limited company with each club in the division a shareholder. The league made agreements With new satellite television broadcaster BOSKY in a five-year deal worth IEEE million. Bradley et al (2002) backed up the importance stating that “Some sports are attractive to the media. Particularly television, as a source of advertising revenue and a cost to viewers… He media creates financial benefits and publicity for many sports” – (Bradley et al. 200248) The increase of football shown on satellite TV increases the amount of people who watch it, overall increasing the worldwide popularity of watching live football, The Premier League for example sells its TV rights abroad to stations in deals to combined worth up to El . B over the next 3 seasons, This means that people around the world can watch the premier League.
Clubs are owned and organized by owners, which try to secure the workers (footballers) and secure loyalty (Kuhn, 201 1) But could the improvement of technology such as live streaming of football games mean that satellite TV companies suffer? A post-modernists view would be that although companies such as SKY may show lots of live football, there is likely to be some exploitation and resistance to them from people live-streaming the game from their own television to people across the world online without them having to pay a penny to the satellite companies.
This shows a fragmented world of individual choice and consumption. (Clarke, 2003) Because Of the relentless expansion Of the global cultural-media industries, s they are increasingly driven to cover their escalating costs over maximum market base, the developments in technology have led to post-modernists describing it as “Anew electronic cultural space; a placeless geography of image and simulation… A global hyperspace With depths communication… In which frontiers and boundaries have become permeable” (Robins 1990:28-33).
Robins also describes how new merchants aspire towards a borderless world and Bosky (satellite TV) shows its product to a world without frontiers and that within globalization of culture, the link between culture and territory becomes significantly broken (Robins, 1990). The neo-liberal idea of a free market’ advocates these developments to the important of producing what they describe as more expansive communications network. Which makes consumer choice paramount.
This idea agrees strongly with Bodybuilder’s view on post-modernity about the a media dominated world and how the population become ‘products’. Neo-Marxist analyses depict the commensuration of sport as one example of the opportunities which have been exploited to prolong the elite it the capitalist system. In its search for investment opportunities, international UAPITA has ‘discovered sport’ including the FIFE World Cup and the attempt to break into different markets across the world (Toothy gamma; Veal, 2007).
The centralization of modern football around the world illustrates the capitalist dream as owners of football clubs and of football organizations seek different opportunities to penetrate new areas of global society which profits can be generated. This can be shown With Papa’s decision to give Qatar the World Cup in 2024 as the middle east is a an area of the world which hasn’t yet been ‘conquered’ by modern day football. Boyhood, 2012).
Marxist argued that the workers should revolt against the hegemony of the bosses and ultimately end capitalism and returns the power to the people. This can be used in football terms as the fans and players should rebel against club owners and governing bodies officials in order to give football back to the people. This type of Marxist protest has been seen, albeit rarely in modern football in the creation of FCC Limited of Manchester set up by former Manchester United season ticket holders after they opposed the current owner Malcolm Glazers acquisition of the club.
Even this action could be seen as globalize as it this has happened all around the world with teams such as Yashmak F-. C and Seoul United. (McCarthy, 2011) As the global media bringing events from all parts of the world into peoples living room, the nature of sports fantod has certainly evolved, Thirty years ago it would have been unthinkable of a teenager from Leeds supporting a major Italian team far less an American sports franchise.
With the hyperinflation of modern football has come consumerist culture, which has permitted new fans to choose their teams in the same way that they would select a car or even an tem from the supermarket shelf. Most traditional supporters however are in a position where choice is virtually made for them on the basis of locality and family influence. (Brainier, 2001). Nowadays, though there are undoubtedly soccer clubs (Liverpool, Manchester United gamma, Man City), Which now draw crowds from all throughout the world.
Overtone fans are known for saying to their Impressive counterparts “Stop Global Warning – Ban Liverpool fans flying to home games” in a way to say most of Liverpool fans don’t come from Impressive and the Globalization Of Liverpool CE has led to many oversea supporters owing to games instead of Libertarians and therefore losing some tradition by doing so. (Masonic, 2007). Manchester City ; Arsenal both now have stadiums named after Arab companies (Edited ; Emirates) both of which have been seen as a disappointment to fans as it lacks the old traditional style of how the club is now perceived.
A postmodernist view on this would be, that the Globalization of media sport and modern day capitalist run football has eradicated the notions of old traditions and community. It is clear that modern day football works with a capitalist and postmodern ideology. This can be shown by how teams acquire players within a ‘free market’ ? a key feature of capitalism and post modernity. European football is comparable to the unconstrained capitalism of the 19th century, where enormous market power and wealth could be accumulated by a few wealthy individuals and everyone else was left to fend tort themselves. Hodgkin, 2012) In December 1995, The European Court of Justice liberalized the international movement of professional footballers among the EX. and member countries. This meant that players had the right to free movement after their contract had run out. This ‘Bosoms’ Ruling abolished national quotas in football and would help prevent leading clubs from monopolizing the most talented players (Monochrome, 2002). This overall led to the transfer of foreign players moving from country to country skyrocketing.
A consequence Of the liberalized international labor migration is an internationalization of each domestic talent labor market. For example, in 2000-01, out of 342 transfers in French football, 198 reflected international migration (Gerard, 2004) Nowadays in Europe most major football clubs have more foreign than domestic players shown by Chelsea in 2000, who ad 34 registered players, 26 of whom were foreign and signed from foreign teams. (Bourn : Gouged, 2001). Increasingly players from poorer countries are migrating from their home countries to European leagues.
Although there are many benefits for players from developing countries to move abroad to big striving European countries, Andre (2004) states that many of the transfers sometimes happen illegally through dubious practice by players agents and that these players, if they don’t make it are just released by clubs, Former footballer Raymond Kop, angry about regulations governing professional football entrants declared, “Players are professional footballer is the only man who can be bought and sold without consent”.
Although comparing athletes who make millions of pounds a year is absurd, but within the labor market, players don’t have much choice in veers they go unless their contract has run out, (Dubious, 2010), Modern football has very strong links with the capitalist ideology With football being such a profitable business, footballs governing bodies are keen to expand the popularity Of football around the world and create supply for a demand, which can be seen as very profitable.
With the increased popularity of the English Premier League, mainly due to the fact that it is broadcasted around the world means everyone from every continent can watch it and therefore be part of the influx Of products and services it provides. While FIFE tries to break new barriers and bring the World Cup to new continents such as Africa, Asia and the Middle East it’s showing a keenness to expand modern footballs popularity.
Along with the relentless expansion of the global cultural media industries and technological advances, it is becoming easier for supporters and fans to gain access to the port, overall breaking the boundaries and frontiers which nation states are divided to create a football world of its own, in which modern footballs governing bodies are trying to take advantage of. Therefore overall along with the increased impact to centralization and globalization within modern football, its clear that modern football has already created a hyperbola society showing that in the football world is a post modern one.

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